An unexpected and unplanned event on the road, involving either one or more vehicles and other road users, results in a traffic accident when there are injuries to people or damage to property (Law No. 22 of 2009 concerning Road Traffic and Transportation). WHO (1984) defined a traffic accident as an incident in which at least one vehicle causes loss, damage, or harm to the owner or victim. It is challenging to forecast where and when a traffic accident will happen.
Accidents can cause mortality in addition to trauma, illness, or disability Accidents are challenging to prevent and can get worse when roads get longer and there are more vehicle movements on them. In order to implement corrective actions and preventative measures (prevention for traffic accidents), it is necessary to study the many elements that contribute to accidents and determine their causes. Conflicts between a driver and their surroundings can lead to traffic accidents when the driver takes action to avoid something or an impediment, potentially increasing the likelihood of a collision or accident.
Traffic Accident Types :
Minor traffic collisions.
such as those that cause harm to goods or automobiles.
Moderate traffic accidents.
that is,collisions that cause property damage and/or Minor injuries to
vehicles and/or products.
Serious traffic accidents.
including those that cause fatalities or significant injuries.
According to DG Hubdat (2006), there are two categories of traffic incidents based on the number of cars involved:
or an accident involving just one motorized vehicle and no other vehicles on the
road,such as when a car runs into a tree or flips over due to a flat tire.
such as collisions involving multiple vehicles or collisions involving pedestrians
and vehicles that occur simultaneously.
Traffic accidents are classified into numerous categories based on the sort of collision that takes place, including :
which is a collision between two moving vehicles but not from the opposite direction.
in which one vehicle strikes another going in the same direction from behind.
which one mvehicles are oving vehicle strikes another from the side.
an accident involving two cars moving in the opposite direction (not sideswipe).
Backing, rearward collision.
Traffic accidents can be categorized into one of three categories in accordance with Law No. 22 of 2009 Concerning Road Traffic and Transportation, namely : Traffic accident effects In accordance with Government Regulation No. 43 of 1993 Concerning Highway and Traffic Infrastructure, there are three categories into which the effects of traffic accidents can be placed: An accident victim is considered to have “dead” if their demise from the accident can be verified to have occurred within 30 days of the collision. Accident victims who require hospitalization for more than 30 days after the accident or who suffer lifelong handicap as a result of their injuries are considered seriously damaged. A loss or inability to use a limb at all that cannot be regained or recovered permanently is categorized as a permanent impairment. Accident victims who sustain minor injuries are those who must stay in the hospital for less than 30 days or not at all. Causes of Traffic Accidents Traffic accidents typically result from a combination of causes including violations or irresponsible behavior on the part of other road users (motorists and pedestrians), poor road conditions, poor vehicle conditions, poor weather, and poor visibility.
Following are the 5 elements that contribute to road accidents:
- Human variables (human factors).
The most important contributing element to accidents is human error. Roads are used by people as both drivers and walkers. Both pedestrians who are involved in collisions and those who cause collisions are pedestrians. Drivers of vehicles are the biggest contributors to collisions, hence they are frequently taken into account. Almost all accidents start with a traffic law violation. There are a lot of ways that drivers can cause accidents to happen on the road, such as driving when fatigued or drowsy, not using a seat belt or helmet, talking on a phone while driving, driving at a fast pace, etc. The incidence of accidents vary by demographics. For instance, despite the fact that young people typically have quick reflexes, research indicates that their riskier conduct and attitudes can place them in danger to other road users. The number of accidents involving older drivers with slow reactions may increase, although this has not yet happened because older drivers prefer to drive more slowly and cautiously.
- Vehicle factors.
A safety factor value has been built into motorized vehicles as a result of factory production to assure the driver’s safety. All automotive components, including the steering wheel, brakes, tires, lights, mirrors, and seat belts, must work properly for the vehicle to be ready for usage. The vehicle element is an inherent part of traffic accidents. Brakes not functioning properly (brake failure), tire bursts, poor engine conditions, unusable vehicle circumstances, and several other causes are vehicle variables that frequently cause accidents. The technologies employed and the maintenance done on the vehicle are directly tied to all vehicle factors that may affect traffic accidents.
- Road quality is a consideration.
Road conditions and environmental factors can also contribute to traffic accidents. Traffic accidents may occur due to poor road conditions. Similarly, effective markings, signs, and traffic signaling equipment (APILL) can also contribute to traffic accidents. Road experts and traffic experts design roads with standard standards that are correctly implemented and adequately maintained in order to achieve road transportation safety. The interaction of road width, curvature, and visibility has a significant impact on the likelihood of accidents. The environment and the state of the roads have a big impact on how many accidents happen on the roadway. The quality of the road surface, guardrails on the highway, potholes, and slippery, damaged, and uneven road conditions are all related to the road factor as a means of transportation. This situation is inextricably linked to the materials used to construct the road and is made worse by the abundance of large vehicles, like trucks, which frequently tow loads that are too heavy. Environmental or meteorological elements can also have an impact on how a vehicle performs. For instance, slick road conditions, as well as smoke and fog, can reduce vision, particularly on routes in mountainous areas. This has a significant effect on the likelihood of accidents.
- Lawmaking Road traffic and transportation have a significant role in raising
social mobility in society.
Therefore, the state considers it vital to regulate it in line with the times in order to safeguard and ensure the rights of citizens in Road Traffic and Transportation operations. The basic and primary reference that governs all facets of road traffic and transportation in Indonesia is Law Number 22 of 2009 Governing Highway Traffic and Transportation, a legislative document. This law is an improvement over the previous one, Law Number 14 of 1992 Concerning Highway Traffic and Transportation, which was deemed to be insufficient to address contemporary situations, strategic environmental changes, and the need for traffic and transportation management. After 18 years, Legislation Number 14 of 1992’s laws regarding traffic law were updated in 2009.
- Environmental factors.
specifically outcomes, in both the natural and constructed environments Traffic safety is greatly influenced by human engineering. Sharp curves, steep ascents or descents, trees or hills that impede the view are all natural factors that should be taken into consideration when managing traffic. this natural setting.
The following is How to Avoid Traffic Accidents for Motorists :
Wear a seat belt or a helmet.
According to the Megainsurance page, wearing a helmet is absolutely necessary for all motorbike riders, both the driver and the passenger. Motorcycle riders frequently underestimate it, though. No matter how close the distance is, it’s a good idea to always wear a helmet when riding a motorcycle in order to increase safety and prevent undesirable things. The use of a seat belt is equally crucial for drivers of automobiles. In the event of a collision or accident, the steering wheel will first be restrained by the seat belt that is fastened to the body, protecting you from impact. To properly safeguard your body while driving, buckle your seatbelts in the proper manner.
Refrain from using your phone.
In order to converse or simply check notifications, many drivers are observed using their cell phones while operating a vehicle. However, since it may impair your ability to focus while driving, this is actually highly fatal. Traffic accidents frequently result from drivers who are preoccupied with their cell phones while operating a vehicle. Make it a practice to never use a cell phone while driving because doing so puts your safety in jeopardy.
Regularly Inspect Vehicles.
Vehicles also require routine maintenance because harm can happen without our knowledge. Your car should be checked and maintained at the closest repair facility to learn more about its state and whether it is roadworthy or requires parts replacement to prevent undesired things during operation.
follow traffic laws.
We must abide by driving laws if we want to prevent accidents. This is due to the fact that traffic laws were designed with road users’ comfort, order, and safety in mind. In accordance with Article 1 Point 24 of Law No. 22 of 2009 concerning Road Traffic and Transportation (LLAJ), a traffic accident is an unanticipated, unintentional event that occurs on a road and involves a vehicle, whether or not other road users are also involved, and that causes casualties or property damage. Effective measures to prevent traffic accidents truly range, starting with inspecting the car, making sure the driver is fit to drive, and, of course, adhering to all traffic laws. Law No. 22 of 2009 respecting LLAJ is a comprehensive summary of these traffic laws. This regulation actually encompasses a number of different systems, including control of traffic, vehicles, drivers, and other road users, as well as networks and infrastructure related to traffic and road transportation.
Only bring what is essential.
Your car will use more fuel, which is a wasteful practice, if it has an excessive load. Therefore, whether you are riding a motorcycle or a car, try to limit how much luggage you carry when driving. Avoid driving at high speeds if you have a roof rack on your car so that it will be stable when traveling on the road.